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Project Details

Cultural Resources

Archaeological Surveys at Reservoirs

Various reservoirs throughout Oregon
US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District

Harris Environmental conducted archaeological surveys of four project areas in eastern Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District, in order to support the agency’s responsibility for NHPA Section 106 compliance. Fieldwork and reporting followed Oregon SHPO standards. The project areas consisted of 2,960 acres of drawdown zones of the Fall Creek, Fern Ridge, Detroit Lake, and Willow Creek Reservoirs, located in Lane, Marion, and Morrow Counties. The reservoirs were drawn down to expose areas not previously surveyed for cultural resources. Topography of the project areas varied from flat open valleys to steep ridges bordering creeks and rivers, with surrounding coniferous forests. Crews regularly trudged through deep muds to complete the project field work. As the result of survey, 57 new prehistoric and historic archaeological resources and 49 previously recorded sites were documented and evaluated. The survey identified an extensive history of human occupation in the project areas from the Archaic period through the mid-twentieth century, with many resources related to trade and transportation in the area. Some of the resources recorded included a probable Archaic stemmed point, a wide-stemmed projectile point resembling the Borax Lake Cluster from Northern California, a section of the Oregon Pacific Railroad, and an early twentieth century transmission line. The survey areas also contained evidence of heavy logging activity that occurred prior to the construction of the reservoirs. Four technical reports were prepared for this project with a short turnaround time.

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Native American Consultation Meeting Facilitation

Fort Huachuca, AZ
US Army Garrison Fort Huachuca

Harris Environmental was contracted to facilitate U.S. Army Garrison Fort Huachuca’s annual consultation meeting with Native American Tribal representatives. The meeting focused on the results of Harris Environmental’s recent documentation and archaeological survey of natural spring locations at Fort Huachuca. Harris Environmental provided all administrative support for the consultation meeting, including making arrangements for meeting rooms, lodging, meals, and reimbursement of travel expenses for attendees. Harris Environmental’s archaeologists worked with Fort Huachuca’s Cultural Resources Manager to plan the meeting day and kept detailed notes during the meeting, in order to prepare formal meeting minutes. Our archaeologists delivered a presentation and escorted attendees on a field visit to several natural springs and archaeological sites on Fort Huachuca. The meeting provided meaningful discussion among Tribal representatives and Fort Huachuca personnel on resource significance and future management of cultural resources on Fort Huachuca.

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CULTURAL RESOURCES AND NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT:
SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTISE

Various locations in AZ, CA, TX , WA
US Department of Homeland Security, Customs & Border Protection

Harris Environmental provided Subject Matter Expert services in cultural resources to Customs and Border Protection Facilities Management and Engineering Office. This complex project required us to provide a team of qualified environmental SMEs in cultural resources, environmental planning, and project and program management. This project demanded a thorough understanding of the cultural issues associated with the actions the agency proposed to undertake and a comprehensive understanding of federal, state, and local regulatory requirements. We completed 28 different task orders along the U.S.– Mexico and U.S. – Canada International Borders, many under hazardous conditions (remote and rugged country, under threat of violence from smugglers). Tasks included NRHP eligibility evaluations; cultural resources inventories; documentation of historical facilities; preparation of monitoring plans and monitoring construction areas; and developing National Environmental Policy Act documents. We worked on multiple projects at one time, each with a different project manager and each with a fast-paced deadline. We prepared reports for each task and navigated them through federal regulatory review and state SHPO review. All project objectives were met within our established schedules and budgets.

In addition, our experience includes numerous electrical co-operatives throughout Arizona. For these, we have conducted natural and cultural surveys/compliance reports.

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CONSTRUCTION MONITORING
HARDROCK ABANDONED MINE CLOSURES

Five National Parks in Arizona
US National Park Service

Harris Environmental provided project supervision to ensure compliance with the construction contract and associated environmental protection measures for the hardrock closures at Coronado National Memorial, Saguaro National Park, Grand Canyon National Park, and Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Biological monitors were present for construction activities at all mine features, and an archaeological monitor was present during ground-disturbing activities associated with closure of mine features listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. We were responsible for ensuring minimal impacts to cultural and natural resources, and that applicable mitigation measures were applied/as well as the appropriate closure method. Work was conducted in remote and rugged areas which required long hiking and, at some mines in the Grand Canyon, helicopter use. Also, for two of the park units located near the U.S./Mexico International Border, we worked with armed escorts for safety.

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Yuma Proving Grounds, AZ
US Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District

Harris Environmental has conducted Class III Cultural Resources Inventories, including pedestrian surveys in support of compliance requirements specific to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) for on-going testing and training activities within U.S. Army Garrison Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). To date, Harris Environmental has surveyed over 37,000 acres within the installation.

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Yakima Training Center & Joint-Base Lewis-McChord, WA
US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District

Harris Environmental completed archaeological surveys, archaeological site assessments, archaeological site evaluations, and data recovery excavations at Joint Base Lewis-McChord (JBLM) in Pierce and Thurston counties, Washington. Archaeological surveys covered over 600 acres, including ten previously identified archaeological sites, which were selected due to impact from known previous or potential effects of military activities and maneuvers. Archaeological survey included subsurface testing in the form of shovel test probes. Six new archaeological sites were recorded as a result of the survey. The majority of the sites investigated were historic period sites, which required extensive research into the property ownership history and genealogical research on the families and individuals who occupied and created the sites. Archaeological resources investigated were associated with the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, historic homesteads, the early logging industry in western Washington, historic schools, and historic military activity, including training areas, parade grounds, and a Vietnam mock village. Data recovery investigations were carried out at a late 1800s homestead site, because future military disturbances at the site cannot be avoided. A research design was prepared to guide excavations. Excavations were carried out over a 3-week period and included the excavation of 100 shovel test probes and 29 1-by-1-meter test units. All surface diagnostic artifacts were collected, as well as all subsurface artifacts. Artifacts were analyzed and cataloged by Harris Environmental and prepared for long-term curation. A comprehensive report was prepared to document the archaeological investigations findings.

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Cultural Resources Surveys

Cow Canyon and Potato Wash Navajo County, AZ
US Bureau of Land Management

Harris Environmental completed Class III cultural resource inventories for a proposed BLM invasive species eradication program in Navajo County, Arizona on 3,335 acres. Archival records from AZSITE and the BLM revealed that the project area had not been previously surveyed. Fieldwork identified 56 new sites within the survey areas, most of which are prehistoric. Several sites were large prehistoric habitation areas with Puebloan room blocks and extensive artifact scatters. Historic sites showed a history of ranching, which continues to this day. All work met Arizona State Museum, BLM, and Arizona State Historic Preservation Office Standards. Sites were carefully documented, their conditions were assessed, and they were evaluated for eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Some sites displayed evidence of vandalism, with looters holes inside room blocks. Harris Environmental’s final report included documentation of all aspects of the project and its results, as well as recommendation to the BLM for future management of cultural resources.

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Guaje Motorized Survey

Santa Fe National Forest, Los Alamos, NM
US Forest Service

Harris Environmental supported the U. S. Forest Service’s Santa Fe National Forest’s development of a plan for motorized trails on the Pajarito Plateau north of Los Alamos, New Mexico. The area was previously surveyed in the 1970s and 1980s by the Pajarito Archaeological Research Project of the University of California, Los Angeles. Harris Environmental relocated and mapped sites using high precision GPS. Of particular interest was the complex of Coalition Period (AD 1200 to 1325) fieldhouses and large pueblos scattered across the plateau/canyon landscape. We also investigated evidence of historic use of the area beginning with Hispanic homesteads in the late 1800s and early 1900s and the remains of Forest Service facilities during this same time period.

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